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This indicates one to very robust physics underlie the partnership anywhere between P

(top) Scatterplot of AHTEQ vs the mass overturning streamfunction at 500 hPa over the equator over the seasonal cycle in the observations. Each asterisk is a monthly average and the dashed line is the linear best fit. (bottom) Scatterplot of the location of the 0 mass overturning streamfunction ??=0 at 500 hPa vs AHTEQ (red asterisk and linear best fit dashed line) and PPenny vs AHTEQ (blue asterisk and linear best fit dashed line). The expected relationship between ??=0 and AHTEQ from Eq. (9) is shown by the dashed black line.

1) Design operates put and you will strategy

I use model production away from phase step 3 of the Paired Design Intercomparison Enterprise (CMIP3) multimodel databases (Meehl mais aussi al. 2007): an ensemble out of standardized coupled climate simulations away from 25 some other weather designs which were utilized in new Intergovernmental Panel with the Weather Change’s Next Analysis Report. I familiarize yourself with this new preindustrial (PI) simulations here. In those simulations, greenhouse gas density, sprays, and you may solar power pushing is actually fixed within preindustrial membership plus the patterns are run having eight hundred decades. The final 20 years of one’s PI simulations are accustomed to determine climatological fields. The latest sixteen models found in this study was placed in Dining table 1.

Activities found in this study as well as their solution. The newest lateral solution refers to the latitudinal and longitudinal grid spacing and/or spectral truncation. New straight solution is the number of straight membership.

The turbulent and radiative energy fluxes at the surface and TOA are provided as model output fields. This allows ?SWABS? and ?SHF? to be directly calculated from Eqs. (6) and (7). The ?OLR? is directly calculated and ?STORATMOS? is calculated from finite difference of the monthly averaged vertically integrated temperature and specific humidity fields; AHTEQ is then calculated from the residual of the other terms in Eq. (5).

2) Overall performance

We show the seasonal amplitude (given by half the length of the line) and the regression coefficient (given by the slope of the line) between PPenny and first time craigslist hookup AHTEQ for each CMIP3 ensemble member in the upper panel of Fig. 6. We define the seasonal amplitude of PPenny and AHTEQ as the amplitude of the annual harmonic of each variable. The CMIP3 ensemble mean regression coefficient between PPenny and AHTEQ is ?2.4° ± 0.4° PW ?1 (the slope of the thick black line) and is slightly smaller but statistically indistinguishable from the value of ?2.7° ± 0.6° PW ?1 found in the observations (the thick purple line). Table 2 lists the seasonal statistics of PCent and AHTEQ in observations and the models. Seasonal variations in PPenny and AHTEQ are significantly correlated with each other in all models with an ensemble average correlation coefficient of ?0.89. On average, the linear best fits in the models come closer to the origin than do the observations (thick black line in Fig. 6), conforming to our idealized expectation that when the precipitation is centered on the equator, the ascending branch of the Hadley cell will also be on the equator, resulting in zero cross-equatorial heat transport in the atmosphere. The relationship between PPenny and AHTEQ over the seasonal cycle is fairly consistent from one model to the next (all the slopes in Fig. 6 are similar) and is similar to the relationship found in the observations. Penny and AHTEQ, mainly the mutual relationship among the tropical precipitation maximum, AHTEQ, and the location of the Hadley cell. The precipitation centroid lags the cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport in the models by 29 days in the ensemble average (with a standard deviation of 6 days). This is in contrast to the observations where there is virtually no (<2 days) phase shift between PCent and AHTEQ. We further discuss this result later in this section.